Am Montag, 28. März 2011 stellte EU-Verkehrskommissar Siim KALLAS in Brüssel das neue Weißbuch der EU-Kommission vor. Das Weißbuch sei „ein Fahrplan zu einem wettbewerbsfähigen Verkehrssektor, der mehr Mobilität ermöglicht und Emissionen mindert“, so KALLAS. Die Vorstellung des Weißbuches war – erwartungsgemäß – von erheblicher Kritik der Parteien und Verbände begleitet.
Inhaltlich ist dem „Verkehrsfahrplan 2050“ u. a. zu entnehmen:
- Bis 2030 sollen 30 Prozent des Straßengüterverkehrs über mittlere Entfernungen von mehr als 300 Kilometer auf Schiene und Binnenschifffahrt verlagert werden, bis 2050 sogar mehr als die Hälfte.
- Der Personentransport über mittlere Strecken soll dann „zu einem Großteil“ durch die Bahn erfolgen.
- Bis 2050 soll es in den europäischen Städten keine konventionell betriebenen Autos mehr geben.
- Die gesamten verkehrsbedingten Emissionen sollen bis 2050 um 60 Prozent sinken.
- Innereuropäische Verbindungen sollen mit klimaschonenderen Fahrzeugen realisiert werden.
- Die Anzahl der Unfalltoten soll bis 2020 halbiert und in den folgenden 30 Jahren noch weiter (gegen „Null“) gesenkt werden.
- Flughäfen und Häfen sollen besser an das Schienennetz angeschlossen werden.
- Die Schienennetze sollen massiv ausgebaut werden: Um- und Ausbau der Verkehrswege in den nächsten 20 Jahren für schätzungsweise 1,5 Bio Euro.
- Die Hälfte des Personen- und Güterverkehrs zwischen Städten soll auf Eisenbahn und Schiffe verlagert werden (Ko-Modalität).
„Die verkehrspolitischen Ziele der Kommission können als ’sehr ambitioniert‘ bezeichnet werden.“ so die erste Bewertung durch Dipl.-Volkswirt E. Schulz, Geschäftsführer des IFV BAHNTECHNIK e.V.: „Die Umsetzung von visionären verkehrpolitischen Zielen stellt eine immense Herausforderung dar, weil dabei nicht zu unterschätzende technische, juristische und ökonomische Aufgaben zu lösen sind. Der IFV BAHNTECHNIK e.V. wird die Anstrengungen der EU zur Modernisierung des Transportsektors mit dem vorhandenen Expertenwissen auf dem Gebiet der Bahntechnik nach Kräften unterstützen.„
Um die im Weißbuch genannten Ziele zu erreichen, will die Kommission den Mitgliedsländern in den nächsten Monaten diverse Gesetzesvorschlägen präsentieren. Bei der Finanzierung soll nach dem Willen der EU-Kommission das Verursacherprinzip stärker zur Geltung kommen (beispielsweise in Form von Strassengebühren).
WHITE PAPER COM(2011) 144 final
Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area – Towards a competitive and resource
efficient transport system
SEC(2011) 359 final
SEC(2011) 358 final
SEC(2011) 391 final
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
WHITE PAPER Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area – Towards a competitive
and resource efficient transport system……………………………………………………………………………1
1. Preparing The European Transport Area for the Future………………………………………..3
2. A vision for a competitive and sustainable transport system …………………………………5
2.1. Growing Transport and supporting mobility while reaching the 60% emission
reduction target ……………………………………………………………………………………………….5
2.2. An efficient core network for multimodal intercity travel and transport………………….6
2.3. A global level-playing field for long-distance travel and intercontinental freight …….7
2.4. Clean urban transport and commuting………………………………………………………………..8
2.5. Ten Goals for a competitive and resource efficient transport system: benchmarks
for achieving the 60% GHG emission reduction target…………………………………………9
3. The Strategy – what needs to be done ………………………………………………………………10
3.1. A Single European Transport Area…………………………………………………………………..11
3.2. Innovating for the future – technology and behaviour ………………………………………..12
3.3. Modern infrastructure and smart funding ………………………………………………………….13
3.4. The external dimension…………………………………………………………………………………..16
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1. PREPARING THE EUROPEAN TRANSPORT AREA FOR THE FUTURE
1. Transport is fundamental to our economy and society. Mobility is vital for the
internal market and for the quality of life of citizens as they enjoy their freedom to
travel. Transport enables economic growth and job creation: it must be sustainable
in the light of the new challenges we face. Transport is global, so effective action
requires strong international cooperation.
2. The future prosperity of our continent will depend on the ability of all of its regions
to remain fully and competitively integrated in the world economy. Efficient
transport is vital in making this happen.
3. European Transport is at a cross roads. Old challenges remain but new have come.
4. A lot needs to be done to complete the internal market for transport, where
considerable bottlenecks and other barriers remain. We need to readdress these
issues – how to better respond to the desire of our citizens to travel, and the needs
of our economy to transport goods while anticipating resource and environmental
constraints. The transport systems of the eastern and western parts of Europe must
be united to fully reflect the transport needs of almost the whole continent and our
500 million citizens.
5. Oil will become scarcer in future decades, sourced increasingly from uncertain
supplies. As the IEA has recently pointed out, the less successful the world is in
decarbonising, the greater will be the oil price increase. In 2010, the oil import bill
was around € 210 billion for the EU. If we do not address this oil dependence,
people’s ability to travel – and our economic security – could be severely impacted
with dire consequences on inflation, trade balance and the overall competitiveness
of the EU economy.
6. At the same time, the EU has called for, and the international community agreed,
on the need to drastically reduce world greenhouse gas emissions, with the goal of
limiting climate change below 2ºC. Overall, the EU needs to reduce emissions by
80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050, in the context of the necessary reductions of
the developed countries as a group, in order to reach this goal. Commission
analysis1 shows that while deeper cuts can be achieved in other sectors of the
economy, a reduction of at least 60% of GHGs by 2050 with respect to 19902 is
required from the transport sector, which is a significant and still growing source of
GHGs. By 2030, the goal for transport will be to reduce GHG emissions to around
20% below their 2008 level. Given the substantial increase in transport emissions
over the past two decades, this would still put them 8% above the 1990 level.
7. Since the first big oil crisis 40 years ago – despite technical progress, potential for
cost-effective energy efficiency improvements and policy efforts – the transport
system has not fundamentally changed. Transport has become more energy
1 Cf. Commission Communication “A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in
2050”, COM (2011)112.
2 This would correspond to emissions cuts of around 70% below 2008 levels.
EN 4 EN
efficient, but EU transport still depends on oil and oil products for 96% of its
energy needs. Transport has become cleaner, but increased volumes mean it
remains a major source of noise and local air pollution.
8. New technologies for vehicles and traffic management will be key to lower
transport emissions in the EU as in the rest of the world. The race for sustainable
mobility is a global one. Delayed action and timid introduction of new technologies
could condemn the EU transport industry to irreversible decline. The EU’s transport
sector faces growing competition in fast developing world transport markets.
9. Many European companies are world leaders in infrastructure, logistics, traffic
management systems and manufacturing of transport equipment – but as other
world regions are launching huge, ambitious transport modernisation and
infrastructure investment programmes, it is crucial that European transport
continues to develop and invest to maintain its competitive position.
10. Infrastructure shapes mobility. No major change in transport will be possible
without the support of an adequate network and more intelligence in using it.
Overall, transport infrastructure investments have a positive impact on economic
growth, create wealth and jobs, and enhance trade, geographical accessibility and
the mobility of people. It has to be planned in a way that maximises positive impact
on economic growth and minimises negative impact on the environment.
11. Congestion is a major concern, in particular on the roads and in the sky, and
compromises accessibility. In addition, transport infrastructure is unequally
developed in the eastern and western parts of the EU which need to be brought
together. There is increased pressure on public resources for infrastructure funding
and a new approach to funding and pricing is needed.
12. Since the 2001 White Paper on Transport, a lot has been achieved. Further market
opening has taken place in aviation, road and partly in rail transport. The Single
European Sky has been successfully launched. The safety and security of transport
across all modes has increased. New rules on working conditions and on passenger
rights have been adopted. Transeuropean transport networks (financed through
TEN-T, Structural Funds and the Cohesion Fund) have contributed to territorial
cohesion and the building of high-speed railway lines. International ties and
cooperation have been strengthened. A lot has also been done to enhance
transport’s environmental performance.
13. Still, the transport system is not sustainable. Looking 40 years ahead, it is clear that
transport cannot develop along the same path. If we stick to the business as usual
approach, the oil dependence of transport might still be little below 90%3, with
renewable energy sources only marginally exceeding the 10% target set for 2020.
CO2 emissions from transport would remain one third higher than their 1990 level
by 2050. Congestion costs will increase by about 50% by 2050. The accessibility
3 Even in this scenario there would still be some increase in the use of biofuels and electricity compared
EN 5 EN
gap between central and peripheral areas will widen. The social costs of accidents
and noise would continue to increase4.
14. Building on the lessons learnt, this Roadmap takes a global look at developments in
the transport sector, at its future challenges and at the policy initiatives that need to
be considered. The Commission’s vision of future transport is presented in Part 2.
Key measures to achieve it are outlined in Part 3, summarised in Annex I, and
described in more detail in the accompanying staff working document.
2. A VISION FOR A COMPETITIVE AND SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT SYSTEM
2.1. Growing Transport and supporting mobility while reaching the 60% emission
15. There is a large pay-off in taking decisive policy action. The transport industry in
itself represents an important part of the economy: in the EU it directly employs
around 10 million people and accounts for about 5% of GDP.
16. The EU and Governments need to provide clarity on the future policy frameworks
(relying to the greatest extent possible on market based mechanisms) for
manufacturers and industry so that they are able to plan investments. Coherence at
EU level is vital – a situation where (for example) one Member State opted
exclusively for electric cars and another only for biofuels would destroy the concept
of free travel across Europe.
17. The challenge is to break the transport system’s dependence on oil without
sacrificing its efficiency and compromising mobility. In line with the flagship
initiative “Resource efficient Europe” set up in the Europe 2020 Strategy5 and the
new Energy Efficiency Plan 20116, the paramount goal of European transport
policy is to help establish a system that underpins European economic progress,
enhances competitiveness and offers high quality mobility services while using
resources more efficiently. In practice, transport has to use less and cleaner energy,
better exploit a modern infrastructure and reduce its negative impact on the
environment and key natural assets like water, land and ecosystems.
18. Curbing mobility is not an option.
19. New transport patterns must emerge, according to which larger volumes of freight
and greater numbers of travellers are carried jointly to their destination by the most
efficient (combination of) modes. Individual transport is preferably used for the
final miles of the journey and performed with clean vehicles. Information
technology provides for simpler and more reliable transfers. Transport users pay for
the full costs of transport in exchange for less congestion, more information, better
service and more safety. Future development must rely on a number of strands:
4 A description of how transport could evolve up to 2050 if new policies did not intervene to modify the
trends (reference scenario) can be found in Annex 3: “Reference scenario (2010-2050)” of the Impact
Assessment on the White Paper on Transport.
EN 6 EN
– Improving the energy efficiency performance of vehicles across all modes.
Developing and deploying sustainable fuels and propulsion systems;
– Optimising the performance of multimodal logistic chains, including by making
greater use of inherently more resource-efficient modes, where other
technological innovations may be insufficient (e.g. long distance freight);
– Using transport and infrastructure more efficiently through use of improved
traffic management and information systems (e.g. ITS, SESAR, ERTMS,
SafeSeaNet, RIS), advanced logistic and market measures such as full
development of an integrated European railway market, removal of restrictions
on cabotage, abolition of barriers to short sea shipping, undistorted pricing etc.
20. Action cannot be delayed. Infrastructure takes many years to plan, build and equip
– and trains, planes and ships last for decades – the choices we make today will
determine transport in 2050. We need to act on a European level to ensure the
transformation of transport is defined together with our partners rather than
determined elsewhere in the world.
21. Solving the problems identified above means meeting very difficult goals by 2050 –
and challenging ones by 2020/30 to ensure we are moving in the right direction.
The scope for changing the way transport operates varies across transport segments,
as the technological options for each segment are different. In the following, the
Commission’s vision therefore considers three major transport segments: medium
distances, long distances and urban transport. Delivery of this will rely on many
actors – the EU, Member States, regions, cities, but also industry, social partners
and citizens will have their part to play.
2.2. An efficient core network for multimodal intercity travel and transport
22. In the intermediate distances, new technologies are less mature and modal choices
are fewer than in the city. However, this is where EU action can have the most
immediate impact (fewer constraints from subsidiarity or international agreements).
More resource-efficient vehicles and cleaner fuels are unlikely to achieve on their
own the necessary cuts in emissions and they would not solve the problem of
congestion. They need to be accompanied by the consolidation of large volumes for
transfers over long distances. This implies greater use of buses and coaches, rail
and air transport for passengers and, for freight, multimodal solutions relying on
waterborne and rail modes for long-hauls.
23. Better modal choices will result from greater integration of the modal networks:
airports, ports, railway, metro and bus stations, should increasingly be linked and
transformed into multimodal connection platforms for passengers. Online
information and electronic booking and payment systems integrating all means of
transport should facilitate multimodal travel. An appropriate set of passengers’
rights has to accompany the wider use of collective modes.
EN 7 EN
24. Freight shipments over short and medium distances (below some 300 km)7 will to a
considerable extent remain on trucks. It is therefore important, besides encouraging
alternative transport solutions (rail, waterborne transport), to improve truck
efficiency, via the development and the uptake of new engines and cleaner fuels,
the use of intelligent transport systems and further measures to enhance market
25. In longer distances, options for road decarbonisation are more limited, and freight
multimodality has to become economically attractive for shippers. Efficient comodality
is needed. The EU needs specially developed freight corridors optimised
in terms of energy use and emissions, minimising environmental impacts, but also
attractive for their reliability, limited congestion and low operating and
26. Rail, especially for freight, is sometimes seen as an unattractive mode. But
examples in some Member States prove that it can offer quality service. The
challenge is to ensure structural change to enable rail to compete effectively and
take a significantly greater proportion of medium and long distance freight (and
also passengers – see below). Considerable investment will be needed to expand or
to upgrade the capacity of the rail network. New rolling stock with silent brakes and
automatic couplings should gradually be introduced.
27. On the coasts, more and efficient entry points into European markets are needed,
avoiding unnecessary traffic crossing Europe. Seaports have a major role as
logistics centres and require efficient hinterland connections. Their development is
vital to handle increased volumes of freight both by short sea shipping within the
EU and with the rest of the world. Inland waterways, where unused potential exists,
have to play an increasing role in particular in moving goods to the hinterland and
in linking the European seas.
2.3. A global level-playing field for long-distance travel and intercontinental
28. The maritime and aviation sectors are inherently global. Improving the efficiency of
aircraft and traffic management operations has to be pursued in the air sector. It will
secure a competitive advantage on top of reducing emissions; attention is needed
however to avoid imposing excessive burdens on EU operations which could
compromise the EU role as ‘global aviation hub’. Airport capacity needs to be
optimised and, where necessary, increased to face growing demand for travel to and
from third countries and areas of Europe otherwise poorly connected, which could
result in a more than doubling of EU air transport activities by 2050. In other cases,
(high speed) rail should absorb much medium distance traffic. The EU aviation
industry should become a frontrunner in the use of low-carbon fuels to reach the
7 More than half of all goods (in terms of weight) in road transport are moved over distances below 50
km and more than three quarters over distances below 150 km, according to calculations based on
EN 8 EN
29. In maritime, the need for a global level-playing field is equally pronounced8. The
EU should strive – in cooperation with IMO and other international organisations –
for the universal application and enforcement of high standards of safety, security,
environmental protection and working conditions, and for eliminating piracy. The
environmental record of shipping can and must be improved by both technology
and better fuels and operations: overall, the EU CO2 emissions from maritime
transport should be cut by 40% (if feasible 50%) by 2050 compared to 2005 levels.
2.4. Clean urban transport and commuting
30. In cities, switching to cleaner transport is facilitated by the lower requirements for
vehicle range and higher population density. Public transport choices are more
widely available, as well as the option of walking and cycling. Cities suffer most
from congestion, poor air quality and noise exposure. Urban transport is responsible
for about a quarter of CO2 emissions from transport, and 69% of road accidents
occur in cities. The gradual phasing out of ‘conventionally-fuelled’9 vehicles from
the urban environment is a major contribution to significant reduction of oil
dependence, greenhouse gas emissions and local air and noise pollution. It will
have to be complemented by the development of appropriate fuelling/charging
infrastructure for new vehicles.
31. A higher share of travel by collective transport, combined with minimum service
obligations, will allow increasing the density and frequency of service, thereby
generating a virtuous circle for public transport modes. Demand management and
land-use planning can lower traffic volumes. Facilitating walking and cycling
should become an integral part of urban mobility and infrastructure design.
32. The use of smaller, lighter and more specialised road passenger vehicles must be
encouraged. Large fleets of urban buses, taxis and delivery vans are particularly
suitable for the introduction of alternative propulsion systems and fuels. These
could make a substantial contribution in reducing the carbon intensity of urban
transport while providing a test bed for new technologies and opportunity for early
market deployment. Road pricing and the removal of distortions in taxation can
also assist in encouraging the use of public transport and the gradual introduction of
33. The interface between long distance and last-mile freight transport should be
organised more efficiently. The aim is to limit individual deliveries, the most
‘inefficient’ part of the journey, to the shortest possible route. The use of Intelligent
Transport Systems contributes to real-time traffic management, reducing delivery
times and congestion for last mile distribution. This could be performed with lowemission
urban trucks. The use of electric, hydrogen and hybrid technologies would
not only reduce air emissions, but also noise, allowing a greater portion of freight
transport within the urban areas to take place at night time. This would ease the
problem of road congestion during morning and afternoon peak hours.
8 The EU has developed an Integrated Maritime Policy which puts maritime transport in a wider
context of governance, competitiveness and regional strategies. Cf. COM(2009)540.
9 The term ‘conventionally fuelled’ refers to vehicles using non-hybrid, internal combustion engines
EN 9 EN
2.5. Ten Goals for a competitive and resource efficient transport system:
benchmarks for achieving the 60% GHG emission reduction target
Developing and deploying new and sustainable fuels and propulsion systems
(1) Halve the use of ‘conventionally-fuelled’ cars in urban transport by 2030; phase
them out in cities by 2050; achieve essentially CO2-free city logistics in major urban
centres by 203010.
(2) Low-carbon sustainable fuels in aviation to reach 40% by 2050; also by 2050 reduce
EU CO2 emissions from maritime bunker fuels by 40% (if feasible 50%11).
Optimising the performance of multimodal logistic chains, including by making
greater use of more energy-efficient modes
(3) 30% of road freight over 300 km should shift to other modes such as rail or
waterborne transport by 2030, and more than 50% by 2050, facilitated by efficient
and green freight corridors. To meet this goal will also require appropriate
infrastructure to be developed.
(4) By 2050, complete a European high-speed rail network. Triple the length of the
existing high-speed rail network by 2030 and maintain a dense railway network in all
Member States. By 2050 the majority of medium-distance passenger transport should
go by rail.
(5) A fully functional and EU-wide multimodal TEN-T ‘core network’ by 2030, with a
high quality and capacity network by 2050 and a corresponding set of information
(6) By 2050, connect all core network airports to the rail network, preferably high-speed;
ensure that all core seaports are sufficiently connected to the rail freight and, where
possible, inland waterway system.
Increasing the efficiency of transport and of infrastructure use with information
systems and market-based incentives
(7) Deployment of the modernised air traffic management infrastructure (SESAR12) in
Europe by 2020 and completion of the European Common Aviation Area.
Deployment of equivalent land and waterborne transport management systems
(ERTMS13, ITS14, SSN and LRIT15, RIS16). Deployment of the European Global
Navigation Satellite System (Galileo).
10 This would also substantially reduce other harmful emissions.
11 Cf. Commission Communication “A Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in
2050”, COM (2011)112.
12 In accordance with the European ATM Master plan:
13 In accordance with the European Deployment plan for ERTMS: cf. Commission Decision
14 In accordance with the EasyWay 2 Implementation Plan: cf. Commission Decision C(2010) 9675.
15 Directive 2002/59/EC establishing a Community vessel traffic monitoring and information system (OJ
L 208 of 5.8.2002), as amended by Directive 2009/17/EC (OJ L 131 of 28.5.2009).
EN 10 EN
(8) By 2020, establish the framework for a European multimodal transport information,
management and payment system.
(9) By 2050, move close to zero fatalities in road transport. In line with this goal, the EU
aims at halving road casualties by 2020. Make sure that the EU is a world leader in
safety and security of transport in all modes of transport.
(10) Move towards full application of “user pays” and “polluter pays” principles and
private sector engagement to eliminate distortions, including harmful subsidies,
generate revenues and ensure financing for future transport investments.
3. THE STRATEGY – WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE
34. Implementing the above vision requires an efficient framework for transport users
and operators, an early deployment of new technologies and the development of
– Obstacles to a smooth functioning of and effective competition in the internal
market persist. The objective for the next decade is to create a genuine Single
European Transport Area by eliminating all residual barriers between modes and
national systems, easing the process of integration and facilitating the emergence
of multinational and multimodal operators. A vigilant enforcement of the
competition rules across all transport modes will complement the Commission’s
actions in this area. A higher degree of convergence and enforcement of social,
safety, security and environmental rules, minimum service standards and users’
rights must be an integral part of this strategy, in order to avoid tensions and
– Innovation is essential for this strategy17. EU research needs to address the full
cycle of research, innovation and deployment in an integrated way through
focusing on the most promising technologies and bringing together all actors
involved18. Innovation can also play a role in promoting more sustainable
– The efforts towards a more competitive and sustainable transport system need to
include a reflection on the required characteristics of the network and must
foresee adequate investments: EU transport infrastructure policy needs a
common vision and sufficient resources. The costs of transport should be
reflected in its price in an undistorted way.
35. A list of initiatives foreseen is provided in Annex I to this Communication. The
Commission working document that accompanies the Communication provides
16 Cf. Directive 2005/44/EC.
17 Cf. Commission Communication “Innovation Union”, COM(2010)546 and Commission
Communication on “A Digital Agenda for Europe”, COM(2010)245/2.
18 As regards clean and efficient vehicles, policy will be guided by Communication 2010/0186, which
sets out a technologically neutral approach between alternative fuels for internal combustion engines,
electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.
EN 11 EN
3.1. A Single European Transport Area
36. A Single European Transport Area should ease the movements of citizens and
freight, reduce costs and enhance the sustainability of European transport. The
Single European Sky needs to be implemented as foreseen, and already in 2011
the Commission will address the capacity and quality of airports. The area where
bottlenecks are still most evident is the internal market for rail services, which must
be completed as a priority in order to achieve a Single European Railway Area.
This includes the abolishment of technical, administrative and legal obstacles which
still impede entry to national railway markets. A further integration of the road
freight market will render road transport more efficient and competitive. For
maritime transport, a “Blue Belt” in the seas around Europe shall simplify the
formalities for ships travelling between EU ports, and a suitable framework must be
established to take care of European tasks for inland waterway transport. Market
access to ports needs to be further improved.
37. Market opening needs to go hand in hand with quality jobs and working
conditions, as human resources are a crucial component of any high quality
transport system. It is also widely known that labour and skill shortages will
become a serious concern for transport in the future. It will be important to align the
competitiveness and the social agenda, building on social dialogue, in order to
prevent social conflicts, which have proved to cause significant economic losses in
a number of sectors, most importantly aviation.
38. Transport security is high on the EU’s agenda. The EU’s comprehensive approach
of policy, legislation and monitoring of air and maritime transport security should
be further consolidated and strengthened through cooperation with major
international partners. For passenger security, screening methods need to be
improved in order to ensure high security levels with minimum hassle. A risk based
approach to the security of cargo originating outside the EU should be considered.
There is also a need to find an appropriate European approach to land transport
security in those areas where EU action has an added value.
39. Setting the framework for safe transport is essential for the European citizen. A
European Strategy for civil aviation safety will be developed, which includes
adaptation to new technologies and, obviously, international cooperation with main
partners. In maritime transport, passenger ship safety needs to be proactively
addressed. The Vessel Traffic Monitoring and Information System SafeSeaNet will
become the core of all relevant maritime information tools supporting maritime
transport safety and security, as well as the protection of the environment from
ship-source pollution. It will thus provide the essential contribution to the
establishment of a common information sharing environment for the surveillance of
the EU maritime domain19 and support the creation of a common maritime space.
For rail transport, the harmonisation and supervision of safety certification are
essential in a Single European Railway Area. In these three transport sectors, the
European aviation, maritime and rail safety agencies which were set up in the last
decade play an indispensable role.
19 COM(2009)538 and COM(2010)584.
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40. Even though the number of road fatalities in the EU was almost halved in the past
decade, 34,500 people were killed on EU roads in 2009. Initiatives in the area of
technology, enforcement, education and particular attention to vulnerable road
users will be key to drastically reduce these losses of lives even further.
41. The quality, accessibility and reliability of transport services will gain
increasing importance in the coming years, inter alia due to the ageing of the
population and the need to promote public transport. Attractive frequencies,
comfort, easy access, reliability of services, and intermodal integration are the main
characteristics of service quality. The availability of information over travelling
time and routing alternatives is equally relevant to ensure seamless door-to-door
mobility, both for passengers and for freight.
42. The EU has already established a comprehensive set of passengers’ rights which
will be further consolidated. Following the ash cloud crisis and the experience of
extreme weather events in 2010, it has become evident that Mobility Continuity
Plans may be required to preserve the mobility of passengers and goods in a crisis
situation. These events also demonstrated the need for the increased resilience of
the transport system through scenario development and disaster planning.
3.2. Innovating for the future – technology and behaviour
A European Transport research, innovation and deployment strategy
43. ‘Growing out of oil’ will not be possible relying on a single technological solution.
It requires a new concept of mobility, supported by a cluster of new technologies as
well as more sustainable behaviour.
44. Technological innovation can achieve a faster and cheaper transition to a more
efficient and sustainable European transport system by acting on three main factors:
vehicles’ efficiency through new engines, materials and design; cleaner energy use
through new fuels and propulsion systems; better use of network and safer and
more secure operations through information and communication systems. The
synergies with other sustainability objectives such as the reduction of oil
dependence, the competitiveness of Europe’s automotive industry as well as health
benefits, especially improved air quality in cities, make a compelling case for the
EU to step up its efforts to accelerate the development and early deployment of
45. Transport research and innovation policy should increasingly support in a coherent
way the development and deployment of the key technologies needed to develop
the EU transport system into a modern, efficient and user-friendly system. To be
more effective, technological research needs to be complemented with a systems’
approach, taking care of infrastructure and regulatory requirements, coordination of
multiple actors and large demonstration projects to encourage market take-up. The
Commission will devise an innovation and deployment strategy for the transport
sector, in close cooperation with the Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-plan),
identifying appropriate governance and financing instruments, in order to ensure a
rapid deployment of research results.
EN 13 EN
46. This will also concern the deployment of smart mobility systems developed through
EU-funded research, such as the air traffic management system of the future
(SESAR), the European rail traffic management system (ERTMS) and rail
information systems, maritime surveillance systems (SafeSeaNet), River
Information Services (RIS), intelligent transport systems (ITS), and interoperable
interconnected solutions for the next generation of multimodal transport
management and information systems (including for charging). It will also require
an investment plan for new navigation, traffic monitoring and communication
services. Of equal importance is research and innovation in the field of vehicle
propulsion technologies and alternative fuels (Green car initiative, Clean Sky).
47. Innovation and deployment need to be supported by regulatory framework
conditions. Protection of privacy and personal data will have to develop in parallel
with the wider use of information technology tools. Standardisation and
interoperability requirements, including at international level, will avoid
technological fragmentation and enable European businesses to fully benefit from
the entire European transport market, and to create worldwide market opportunities.
Innovative mobility patterns
48. New mobility concepts cannot be imposed. To promote more sustainable
behaviour, better mobility planning has to be actively encouraged. Information on
all modes of transport, both for travel and freight, on possibilities for their
combined use and on their environmental impact, will need to be widely available.
Smart inter-modal ticketing, with common EU standards that respect EU
competition rules is vital. This relates not only to passenger transport but also
freight, where better electronic route planning across modes, adapted legal
environment (inter-modal freight documentation, insurance, liability) and real time
delivery information also for smaller consignments is needed. ICT has also the
potential for satisfying certain accessibility needs without additional mobility.
49. In the urban context, a mixed strategy involving land-use planning, pricing
schemes, efficient public transport services and infrastructure for non-motorised
modes and charging/refuelling of clean vehicles is needed to reduce congestion and
emissions. Cities above a certain size should be encouraged to develop Urban
Mobility Plans, bringing all those elements together. Urban Mobility Plans should
be fully aligned with Integrated Urban Development Plans. An EU-wide framework
will be needed in order to make interurban and urban road user charging schemes
3.3. Modern infrastructure, smart pricing and funding
A European Mobility Network
50. Europe needs a ‘core network’ of corridors, carrying large and consolidated
volumes of freight and passengers traffic with high efficiency and low emissions,
thanks to the extensive use of more efficient modes in multimodal combinations
and the wide application of advanced technologies and supply infrastructure for
EN 14 EN
51. Despite EU enlargement, large divergences in terms of transport infrastructure
remain between eastern and western parts of the EU, which need to be tackled. The
European continent needs to be united also in terms of infrastructure.
52. Within this core network, information technology tools should be widely deployed
to simplify administrative procedures, provide for cargo tracking and tracing, and
optimise schedules and traffic flows (e-Freight). Their uptake should be encouraged
by requiring their deployment on TEN-T infrastructure and a gradual integration of
53. The core network must ensure efficient multi-modal links between the EU capitals
and other main cities, ports, airports and key land border crossing, as well as other
main economic centres. It should focus on the completion of missing links – mainly
cross-border sections and bottlenecks/bypasses – on the upgrading of existing
infrastructure and on the development of multimodal terminals at sea and river
ports and on city logistic consolidation centres. Better rail/airport connections must
be devised for long distance travel. The Motorways of the Sea will be the maritime
dimension of the core network.
54. The selection of projects eligible for EU funding must reflect this vision and put
greater emphasis on European added value. Co-funded projects should equally
reflect the need for infrastructure that minimises the impact on the environment,
that is resilient to the possible impact of climate change and that improves the
safety and security of users.
55. A well-performing transport network requires substantial resources. The cost of EU
infrastructure development to match the demand for transport has been estimated at
over € 1.5 trillion for 2010-2030. The completion of the TEN-T network requires
about € 550 billion until 2020 out of which some € 215 billion can be referred to
the removal of the main bottlenecks. This does not include investment in vehicles,
equipment and charging infrastructure which may require an additional trillion to
achieve the emission reduction goals for the transport system.
56. Diversified sources of finance both from public and private sources are required.
Better coordination of the Cohesion and Structural Funds with transport policy
objectives is needed, and Member States need to ensure that sufficient national
funding is available in their budgetary planning, as well as sufficient project
planning and implementation capacities. Other sources of funding to be considered
include schemes for the internalisation of external costs and infrastructure use
charges20, which could create additional revenue streams making infrastructure
investments more attractive to private capital.
57. Unlocking the potential of private finances equally requires an improved regulatory
framework and innovative financial instruments. Project assessment and
authorisation must be carried out in an efficient and transparent manner that limits
time, cost and uncertainty. New financing instruments, for example the EU project
20 In its Communication on the Strategy for the internalisation of external costs (SEC(2008)2207,
accompanying COM(2008)435) the Commission has laid down a common methodology to charge all
external costs across the whole transport sector.
EN 15 EN
bonds21 initiative, can support Private Public Partnerships (PPP) financing on a
Getting prices right and avoiding distortions
58. Price signals play a crucial role in many decisions that have long-lasting effects on
the transport system. Transport charges and taxes must be restructured in the
direction of wider application of the ‘polluter-pays’ and ‘user-pays’ principle. They
should underpin transport’s role in promoting European competitiveness and
cohesion objectives, while the overall burden for the sector should reflect the total
costs of transport including infrastructure and external costs. Wider socioeconomic
benefits and positive externalities justify some level of public funding, but in the
future, transport users are likely to pay for a higher proportion of the costs than
today. It is important that correct and consistent monetary incentives are given to
users, operators and investors.
59. The internalisation of externalities, the elimination of tax distortions and unjustified
subsidies and free and undistorted competition are therefore part of the effort to
align market choices with sustainability needs (and to reflect the economic costs of
‘non-sustainability’). They are also necessary to establish a level playing field
between modes which are in direct competition.
60. As regards GHG emissions, two main market-based instruments are being used:
energy taxation and emission trading systems. Taxation is currently applied to fuels
used in land transport, while the ETS applies to electricity use and, as of 2012, to
aviation. The revision of the Energy Taxation Directive will be an opportunity to
ensure better coherence between the two instruments. At the same time, the EU
urges a decision in IMO on a global instrument to be applied to maritime transport,
where climate change costs are currently not internalised22.
61. The cost of local externalities such as noise, air pollution and congestion could be
internalised through charging for the use of infrastructure. The Commission’s
recent proposal to amend the so-called ‘Eurovignette Directive’ represents a first
step towards a higher degree of internalisation of costs generated by heavy goods
vehicles, but disparities in national road charging policies will remain. Further
action will examine the gradual phasing in of a mandatory harmonised
internalisation system for commercial vehicles on the entire inter-urban network,
putting an end to the current situation whereby international hauliers need the
Eurovignette, 5 national vignettes and 8 different tags and tolling contracts to drive
unhindered on Europe’s tolled roads.
62. For passenger cars, road charges are increasingly considered as an alternative way
to generate revenue and influence traffic and travel behaviour. The Commission
will develop guidelines for the application of internalisation charges to all vehicles
and for all main externalities. The long-term goal is to apply user charges to all
vehicles and on the whole network to reflect at least the maintenance cost of
infrastructure, congestion, air and noise pollution.
22 Cf. also Directive 2009/29/EC, recital 3.
EN 16 EN
63. In parallel, and before 2020, the Commission will develop a common approach for
the internalisation of noise and local pollution costs on the whole rail network.
64. Many branches of transport are treated favourably in terms of taxation, in
comparison to the rest of the economy: tax treatment of company cars, VAT and
energy tax exemptions on international sea and air transport, etc. Generally, these
arrangements provide conflicting incentives with respect to the efforts to improve
the efficiency of the transport system and reduce its external costs. The
Commission will examine proposals to achieve greater consistency between the
various elements of transport taxation and to encourage the rapid introduction of
3.4. The external dimension
65. Transport is fundamentally international. Because of this, most actions in the Road
Map are linked to challenges related to the development of transport beyond the EU
borders. Opening up third country markets in transport services, products and
investments continues to have high priority. Transport is therefore included in all
our trade negotiations (WTO, regional and bilateral). Flexible strategies will be
adopted to ensure the EU’s role as a standard setter in the transport field.
66. To that end, the Commission will focus on the following areas of actions:
– Extend internal market rules through work in international organisations (ICAO,
IMO, OTIF, OSJD, UNECE, the international river commissions etc) and where
relevant attain full EU membership. Promote European safety, security, privacy
and environmental standards worldwide through bilateral and multilateral
cooperation. Reinforce the transport dialogue with main partners.
– Extend our transport and infrastructure policy to our immediate neighbours,
including in the preparation of mobility continuity plans, to deliver closer market
integration23. A cooperation framework similar to on the Western Balkan
Transport Treaty could be used to extend EU rules to other neighbouring
countries. Complete the European Common aviation area of 58 countries and 1
billion inhabitants24. Cooperate with the Mediterranean partners in the
implementation of a Mediterranean Maritime Strategy to enhance maritime
safety, security and surveillance25. Promote SESAR, ERTMS and ITS
technology deployment in the world, and establish research and innovation
partnerships also at international level.
– Promote our approach globally: opening up transport markets to free and
undistorted competition and environmentally sustainable solutions. Continue to
aim at greater market access in transport in all relevant international
23 Cf. also Commission Communication on “Partnership between the European Union and Africa”
24 This includes the Euro-Mediterranean aviation area (Cf. Commission Communication on “A
partnership for democracy and prosperity with the southern Mediterranean” COM(2011)200), but also
other Neighbourhood Countries.
25 Cf. COM(2011)200.
EN 17 EN
67. A transformation of the European transport system will only be possible through a
combination of manifold initiatives at all levels. The various actions and measures
indicated in this Road Map will be further elaborated. The Commission will prepare
appropriate legislative proposals in the next decade with key initiatives to be put
forward during the current mandate. Each of its proposals will be preceded by a
thorough impact assessment, considering EU added value and subsidiarity aspects.
The Commission will ensure its actions increase the competitiveness of transport
while delivering the minimum 60% reduction of GHG emissions from transport
needed by 2050, orienting itself along the ten goals which should be seen as
68. The Commission invites the European Parliament and the Council to endorse this
Road Map to a Single European Transport Area – Towards a competitive and
resource efficient transport system and the attached list of actions.
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